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RMU

Uruguayan Medical Journal

ISSN: 1688-0390


Vol.31 - Nº 4 - Dic. 2015

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Whooping cough: 2011-2012 epidemiological outbreak. Las Piedras Hospital.

ALMADA C; MARA P; PERDOMO V; BELO J; DE SALTERAIN H; DA SILVA E; MONTANO A; GIACHETTO G
Rev Med Urug 2015; 31: 265-271
Full text (spanish) |  Full text (spanish) (New windows, pdf) | Abstract

Abstract

Introduction: whooping cough is an acute respiratory infectious disease caused by a type of bacteria called Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella parapertussis. Being younger than 6 months, hyperleukocytosis and bacterial coinfection are some bad prognosis factors. In Uruguay, since the antipertussis vaccination was included in the vaccination schedule in 1963, notifications with endemic outbreak behavior significantly diminished. In 2011, after two children with whooping cough died, an increase of the cases was recorded at the Las Piedras Hospital.

Objective: to describe the clinical characteristics and evolution of children hospitalized for whooping cough at the Las Piedras Hospital from August 1st, 2011 through April 30, 2012.

Method: descriptive, prospective study, of the children hospitalized for whooping cough. Confirmation was made by polymerase chain reaction in respiratory secretions. Epidemiological variables, clinical characteristics and evolution are analysed.

Results: 41 children were hospitalized with confirmed whooping cough (6.4%); 48.8% were younger than 6 months. Ten of them were referred to intensive care units, eight of them were younger than 6 months and two of them died. Ten per cent were in contact with confirmed cases and 51% were in contact with suspicious cases. Leukocytosis > 20.000 cel/mm3 was seen in 39% of children. There was coinfection with adenovirus in three cases.

Discussion and conclusions: the whooping cough outbreak started in 2011, being the Pereira Rossell the health center that issued the warning and had the highest hospitalization rate. Clinical characteristics and evolution of the children affected are the similar to those described in the region. Access to new diagnostic tools of molecular biology is necessary to address this condition. Control and prevention requires strengthening vaccination strategies.